[]
| | | | | | | | | | | |
...

  |
  |
  |
  |
  |
  | ()
  |
  |
  |

  |
  |
  | -
  | /UFO


.


  |
  | -

  |
  |




...

...
... -
inoy ... , , , 1 1. 100 ...
>>>

-

.

1880 . , . 1890 . , " ."

, , , , .

, , " ." . , .

, , "" , . 1880 . .
1890's , , 1901 . New York Times 1902 . , , , .
. , . , " " , .


Brooklyn Eagle 10 1931 ., " () ". , : " 25 , , ". 1933 New York American, 1 " ". :
" , , , ".
" 25 " 1933 . , , , 1908 . (Columbia University Library's collection). 10 1902 . Robert U. Johnson, Century Magazine, New York Herald Clemente Figueras " " Las Palmas - , . Figueras , , , .


, " " 685,957, 21 1901. . , . . .

2084 bytes

, , , , , . , , , , . .. , , , , .

, , 1900 . , , , ; , . " - " Robert Johnson The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 1900 , , Colorado Springs, 1899, 1900.
, , .

" - "" , , , , - ".

, , , , . . , , , , . , , , , . , . " , , , , , , " ".

, . , 1883 ., , . 1889, .


, , , , , "".
- - #1,061,206 1909 1913. , , . , , - .
" ". , , "" , 1889. .

4302 bytes

"" . , , , , - , . , .

The Electrical Engineer 1891, " -". , , , , , ", , "(4). , , , " "(5). 1889. , - , .


.

farad.gif (2816 bytes)

, , , , , . Walter M. Elsasser Scientific American ( 1958) ", -."

Elsasser , . , , , .
Elsasser , " , - , , []." , " ". .
, , . , , , : , , . , (6).
, , , , . , , .


dinamo

. -, , , , , . -, .

"", , " , . , , , . , , , .
, - . . , .

, - . - , , , , , , . , , , , .

, , ., , .

, , . . , , , . , , , . , , , - .

, . , , , , . , , , . , , . , , , . , , , , . , , .

Elsasser's , . , , , , . , , .

, "" , - , - , , , . , , , .

, , . , 1900 . Century magazine .

, , . , , . , , , . , , , , . "" , " " (8).

, , . , . "" , , , -, , . , , , . " : , ".

, , , . : ", , , " (9). , , , , .

, , , . (10).

, , - , " , , , ( ), , " (11).

, " - , c (12)". " ", , . , . , 1893. , 1900 ., : " , (13)".

2847 bytes

, 1893 , . " " N 512,340. , , , .

, (14). - , () , (15). 6, , , . , .

3282 bytes

Century , , , . , Dr. Karl Linde , "" . : " , , , ".

Linde , , , . Linde , , (17). .

3984 bytes

, . , 200 . , , . , , , . , .

; 60 , - - 360,000 . , , . , , .

90,000 . 360,000 0,25 (=/) (18). , (E = 1/2CV2) , , 1.6 x 1011 4.5 - .

, - " " " ". , .

" " , ; ( ) , . , -, . .

, . "" (19).

. . , "" .

, - " ", , "" - .

. "" "" , . (, ) , , , "" .

- , , , , , , . , .

.

- . , . , ( = ). , , , .

, , , . - . . , , :

, - , , (20, 21).

1880-. 1890- , Westinghouse General Electric, . 10- , - .

, - , , . Century, :

" , , , , " (22).

, 1933, . 2 " "" ". ? : " ". , , .

, . , . " " .


References

  1. Nikola Tesla, U.S. Patent #685,957, "Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy," reproduced in Nikola Tesla: Lectures * Patents * Articles (hereafter LPA), Tesla Museum, Beograd, 1956, reprinted by Health Research, Mokelumne Hill, CA., p. P-344, 1973.
  2. Nikola Tesla, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy - Through Use of the Sun's Energy," The Century Illustrated Magazine, reprinted in LPA, p. A-140.
  3. Reference 2, p. A-142.
  4. Nikola Tesla, "Notes on a Unipolar Generator," The Electrical Engineer," N.Y., Sept. 2, 1891, reprinted in LPA, p.A-24.
  5. Reference 4, p. A-26.
  6. W.M. Elsasser, "The Earth as a Dynamo," Scientific American, p. 44-48, May 1958.
  7. Reference 4, p. A-23.
  8. Reference 2, p. A-140.
  9. Reference 2, p. A-141.
  10. Reference 2, p. A-141.
  11. Reference 2, p. A-141.
  12. Reference 2, p. A-142.
  13. Reference 2, p. A-142.
  14. Nikola Tesla, U.S. Patent #512,340, "Coil for Electro-Magnets," reprinted in LPA, pp. P-428-429. He explains that a standard coil of 1000 turns with a potential of 100 volts across it will have a difference of .1 volt between turns. A similar bifilar coil will have a potential of 50 volts between turns. In that the stored energy is a function of the square of the voltages the energy in the bifilar will be 502/0.12 = 2500/0.01 = 250,000 times greater than the standard coil.
    Nikola Tesla, #512,340, " ," LPA, pp. P-428-429. , 1000 100 0.1 . 50 . - , 502/0.12 = 2500/0.01 = 250,000 , .
  15. Measurements were made by M. King and O. Nichelson at Eyring, Inc., with a HP 3577A network analyzer on 3 inch diameter coils with 43 turns each of number 20 wire.
  16. Reference 2, p. A-143.
  17. Carl Linde, "Process and Apparatus for Attaining Lowest Temperatures for Liquefying Gases, and for Mechanically Separating Gas Mixtures," The Engineer, pp. 485-6, Nov. 13, 1896 and p. 509, Nov. 20, 1896.
  18. "The Amateur Scientist," Scientific American, p. 160, May 1957.
  19. This resembles the electrostatic oscillator in Tesla's wireless transmission system: Oliver Nichelson, "The Underwater Communication System of Nikola Tesla," 1991.
  20. Michael Pupin, From Immigrant to Inventor, Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y., pp. 285-286, 1930.
  21. Reference 2, p. A-143.
  22. For others who followed Tesla with inventions to extract energy from the ambient medium see: Christopher Bird and Oliver Nichelson, "Nikola Tesla: Great Scientist, Forgotten Genius," New Age, p. 36 ff, Feb. 1977.


: 28.10.2004 : 100934

- (MRA)
-
- -
-
-
-
- ( )
- US 4.151.431 : Permanent magnet motor ( )
-
- -

[ | | ]
, .
igelstein - 04 Oct 2011 (10:08)
- ( ) , , . "" , , , . . . smile - ( ), - , . Vlad09: ?
Dgeims - 31 Aug 2011 (01:36)
1.6 x 1011 4.5 - ))!!
Vlad09 - 09 Mar 2009 (01:34)
! ! !smile

| | | | | | | | | | | |

: 2.190 . 12 0.012 .
2006 www.skif.biz

x^ks[ו&9>]Rc xHKXvTJ ̤|K+Tڗ̗T bZPYk}6Hv_f&✳k˳+?Yn~M4Nlz:Lj¼_+jT7ލL^n^Iݻ7*ᅲbx52R]/?(+ &377WGҕB"=r櫅"Q_M-mn'v>n܎~{);F}025kFU7s]KjXno"cUsUU-WrՅ{J^e<39Lݬ-D٭z |3^+ q@nn_/gk˹|4'VK7۞?yoX+l8slq%ѳ|)351,.]X<{\e<5&3;;avSAYө5N7n^׏[swVnwv;9hԴMwi>-Ӌw;{퓔}依v:ZӴk{ݩLqi5~(~uⶉ;nK⇽~?I_{0͸[9v_^ zcYV^ح;{J%11+c*cN.Ɯ`16, \V$Tp%bD'cV h/ADb̈8[<€O [ ]@K,7HOq~_wYs*YRy||\0 ˆwcfZWfA?_*.6*룿 wmyUAMMLLNgF~ya̮s7FW&o ǧeojVsor)M-3!Vk*7LJ2?\1 %յrZZ.k~1T #[EIY͉ޮ+FO2O+JJk}Ϯ C/&0ݕf~K動\j]ˎ ^ߘ^O>c/;+,DأVa"^έ.Dٻg T:+Ѹ~r#[E,\`x[M܀F}7nn-KWaO߳R.*\52|v!,QZN)+\x#_ϭf մ|wJqa~Y Nnmxb o㞺m +9F鴽Oj;R.[|r*lv377^"W._|VG\B/VEѕj%zU_z.^O Rfu5{Uf\Asխ#wz JiC{4 _Cz|R͖Wwr![ <-WRqmq~ AbΜ,}Y#kYehOgq SPZ+@C?n6?=3I]HMx=-ro}W`YLOq]ӻa,G0c 78Fʘݩ0P{ [^?|x}!o~MJ%-sOzvEg#f/vB%-~ч/Ұ~r/ {7Eˋ.~)6[Ѣxѥ4UɕIqEx3}1/\_[ ؋/w»u;A(?^tuHlv?vpuxmۋfW[o+g֏w_\q匦)܁1PKK .V^5&n*,U!58yIU}4e* N)%d76.W2N+q܇g(l(U&ťU쮗d$\B0:Z75s־#oi^ (w`zCAwV'Z :A(fŰ!mC|g`>0P{ѯu;;Lg`c4MÀ/E_Z%6;;Xfi;>?kwpWVG"ɽڣɽ_n`"a]~k s2|mXA>!]d2Ɛb7F>$(vxXvl>6?bs21iB} P@Egt2|8~rg"yv?O 0N_͗ݸR7~xD(ێZ=V[k65}'a/0. wPVm:; S;89XMB!S!{XL[ SR:} ojX7͝~|D ;L^S;ϯK !W^DHR0 ; |PT3/nF~Tת Qfb #xE<#!-|JPrv+7V`=D[+tnwK./OBde_K[ժ9s_й!'Z{cxCyƓͿ^Fi"H<_zϿ_{/.|OE@RSf._bz{iޔM{ a#Zv60[wVr5+\|u"5]yۡzPK7 HxٯXyAs'ax~&gG"P2gU._t{aou޷K } 9ow[kGTK%%r)&pZxm ngƯ&3|a)KR~c PwʒVxk֦)W%#^;e3^avLf&.]x3`3"}[yUJĄZP>S?%TuN^ȥ\Dі 3]9N`N'́(ceaIV_Hx~}r|j+VpeaJEY g(Cĕ97c DOd/A= Hs  :%Q`6?oH$i4;S:57zNMwY7\!P@SG+Sds`S6|T p[ 3[:Ba Pn|ski|ɉLffn*]_5zE .$Jrɩ%\8Op#<9~O\77qoCl}~Az3.M_|ivgN_:̡GN2>Cs^R/3syL{ɩs_Rx&z6|ykIʤe<]b_ؖήT/:C)oM-ޯ{^|L.`5䟷9#zgy@נإ h@<8b; :!"y72(%)θ9|znDG"ҽ1&xg?ŝ)^XvÊۤu4yx=SN)r9U3&OX_u-S?|&§75R!Qц! MYLMuJšsz,ͧlʇ ¿diG5_ ɳ&2dͿqc[Ry?|{x 6)Hs ܄*Ǥɔ:ȕ'PSkw j'6 < \4y7 gb$9,7֊ ~1֮7ks4xvr>1[D37"컒DLCA"g~:8p:dvxsIM<&J,$G#yD7?,#h.lY,'qf4"ha'HE΍={Z.߇>QM>8D^JHV]BLR0;~B v5!EMִmi|39# 6{ }Cx*{Asz :EP)N@ q/8NpxvCehUɵ "}ALxe䷇+w;p(5PC V? ,U~n!Ƨr~$/,O"=mH؊  y,#R ب栵x?4K||P߯ D|ۼ_*g0z @ =VkV¼WZm>HZZ/VJ]|;yV Zנ9jvA@1xNKv̾Tʗ͙7k[KD68[X˓@z Ty_-l8AfZ֕2\8^> #=ƍ/[bq^2b㞓)w68E!VYح0l`H̫]Ni{]YѺ]T0$urfkm!t:OGpmoM>)ӹe ځA^I]ÿ)v;w4jqo_}e}̍7v_:VƟ5%XHC#|i.Ό\)ZsAm Ta{.!B(CnH̊1PJ.&⠴nd:I ‡r7L5IX@ bz)uF[쁬X(Mj=,Jdj^xܭj]xmhBQ`N^65+bF-ڱ,2JN $TCRDCҐaha 󉰻Rhֲ]ikd#(!c$D+װSp@fx71ia58 L2\L$z3s8z&pTV!"rŅYt#H"aYS>f=-i[]!{ OtYQorSxw o]"϶IM9@Υ8zWeϏ΂H 2BgML5'/%8x" AKԣVwN L 8}%XwZaY< R1[ivmm d<42!&`bY?a2^s=ӷuN 6DzFAY D1`t0 ^TG\ef/1u};"oidN:̈ȅO$TrX>/ ŠpFI=H׵SSӍ*(Blnu%>=rR.TͲݰNz(A1c MB>$>#:|Dct%CiAW_<o÷d,0AAmafgڈfcg%!, Zm%2(s|6DYD}bb|ZH N7xPzWJg AK72| !1; j×l jaN0V،󟎟9`7%8i瘰cXvcH9@*<- 8m4hN:p7 B6 E,5nb" 4K[q%]b UAh%d}Rk1`{M v L.vkвe&.e&'.yVk<' E3sao<֛vFqGjv0ՕD͡<6!46 =@|*D= q0sԆP#R@b: ejO1H8]ΐIgÆtN,dQHx ll I݃e>)Ao ZJIp$ҔZOS= ?i-@Nծ> m54\ ?hXXx[wÎowKp+>| OJK0*-!5JJ:vA[Ht~!nX޳>4>4%*KHؿINt-/YΡBg/&'R2r <{4󰪨CLo@#@%s])I?ӝq.(f^~ 6pg$'A+%6Bxem0."cpӵ{-@1208w-C;ἝkD&hkK 9U5iQ~RA[PER.fʹĝ,?= 1{$0@;M÷yqn@q•auF^0H&h*ep.#t^G[N#/eZ=y(q;e4Hp@4p 5S9:#I>iddTVs a䥇@z(ĺZqar ,> tԮDl{%THybM{8%LUK7+Rc~X/`av<ҨLi(QsRFKcF'g32]|Afb*4MM]XP 51u@?]J)#fnDAP30\z H),8*l6}KK x|Ԕ &}4ƑAs}ݗt17RPzc{0@/?[Yq lZ5:I!ً:>ԚoK`}fT)[aϗ< 8I ȞtVm(>%Q$)>!AqzblwA;HXin*ѤqbquЃӪ Woilm }B|t1\WM|_V,$ݱ笳K P]Bd` Ҥag5s/`j)M+ϔ&!~qU+n\`hj\h#?#hrNX$iBfmd}>.B fyJ_|hl $`!/~ %DpHQ4ɩsG` fr>ӎ`ccTsk |m er& @=`@j@>;{L[!G (;r wVO\fC'/egy[ɣ|6}E5j8B %C rtuY9݄(pθ = H1*NTy-i_d%HE luA?2<}&TYBI1 "6EFO;W$!4d35s#Zim3ԑ8`n`nvO@@IuD '_Fg=Fr;bhԃ,sA8["ڄ(ec^Y7"w+`9D1 \7GH4xs0TuI(Y-xXdt`V4$rHNGv*!S8$! fd@8C{-Vvfѱ*%9|SJWNF4x]b0Wd V DFۀ;SFY. &቟CR q40YG 9_ΜǎwGQ&Ԇ/ԭGhdϳFUR]56xf-Cd W#>5 Pia:ݚrs11~>per )_&p: 4ð ҪG$b./xSvk찅8%.GQZУtbO?YX[('ǠSa/>u>or.I nr4.s-eYّْn9}6~ymaRY،l Qt~bO>>qgdjCiss[NSaDBPn/=߬F_{ hL}3B8Uf& Gt'xYʗk[/4 nJo*@*>GV[86MgN MճsmeQi8mU1ZŜ&h<:stS\Z3eɺ:^Ԓz3, j_\:Y$`;2y,ATsu6Ujpӈc7P8 Ł̲TA0!ԬF"Q J`9F%$™ ">&Y8pf,'\ȼj{ nH t=zWȆр{]4 Kma5 9h |M'@* j<k!kcuڍ}&v|SkfJ*Ђ{rh&vw'S$Đ1R&s"k)6*y#O?EՑ<`b9R,፡ѓCa 7a m % B*ۍcVgώy6fiζLxفjR };Xd;CM4A?w5C Wx$O3R#\L=Ֆ 0 xVb'KDszD [iǡJVI%"TɱhLr0L!NAal,v+?8*}_B,fhө-&Ae8/vץM;$퓅'i0_:?tFne|tyZa@ z:ܗꀂ+9>~pZF {?(EŨľV3j̥*WHkG`Eh*)K 2Ov6qHN?*"8xZ08A* &{m"C!A5 RjK` ]$\G:=+a\"!:rg8GY {i0o { c4fU1)T$ P eP| *sP~ lH#cM.EΣ'O#3:p]Jb aи;y:U X+ŤY߅? P.ԋ4m.9={tD)TT/BA#|Wj Zt%f-(ESműR36try hG05n5&F>8sRF4kɢfP*DZa+t:<j6%g5:|kq &>A+L&# Ɗa |=ՏI~jOaAWue= +.vnjđ۔l5AцVA9Tj lLp|כeT,f[q*0{ qB- -Ph9Y-wF$XM%۱8m()) x)޺j=khؒ ~ÒHvs`}!؜ 6:-&F%"q iS(L(C@j6+!7 znL,pTctd;tl ReGԗBgh'2M ]iق&`IF"wiHdލnhbf .A+'QaFʣx]h&2z#:JeM9)vrM#}yHFlP)͠i`8!;3g|O> ; '5[j/Ͱt5ȁP%j(Jcf!mƶ6)'NA& O޸./A}cz:;`yhE]:a mޔVYl1l %7<$Y#ƚ3#v`dثc^ejå|b C\Ym]-Fؒ=*-ݷDb4@n't k˕]"]>S:Ũ}:)I 6p-zn\84jMBjf՞ǓL?V@ )~Bc@#}`y}ۢIz9e~-Gd5IEk#Ee @!I m-Fr썡7}!Lg{K'4 tN3a@{kRq${9wʶ-z4=?CvV55X?vtDcYu^~Uب4؟:ydpZ$Ja)њ+IT`m[̀yb?:a0V4D3#VBw!:g0haa ̊ %l!gP9[:!•~$0(?h2Y7@-F*ws-D>Du#`㽬s٭{o\˧]OpA5kOpIHQiYOK4$d ?\'f_Z,Um螶8eVuxN9r$o*mϠu xԖ=lԺ{#ՂZ?-#MhFnҏ{Sbf] t>uȁu6CI' !A6 <%;0n;٦Y[X,a׬3U=hYpy{-cCN=ٜMiUb:V_Y"HZb|+zkK%gǬC89揋"cA,sU@ub3K#4f2zWk1Of HiHq$|;FOx;FX9*>5CUbkrClHBZ!<_\_t J8XYl7o\ٶj! ($1$A', ?sam6&ChQ:Imi=8 IQDā%Xw̭UW9 aU"C'ʍEAp]!^BOc<;sT;4 h+F)QPdX IW*@H4PY Rp]692LgķfB~ikhkmzJbusdI?MP.\]V ջ',?!䭌t&`Oo؁0%·^y GUP 8 vZΧ?bN7N8]4^ළ0pIWҲCD-]D~k>iVyr$b{,+;9Ҳ MZjW8> LdE׍́6R< %C\ķ؆gCjC-*tyzR"% LlĚi&i׭e .\gDe` N<Ւ;YL=!jC6Fo6%zMw|8 ];2,j}x `*I=0ԜER iy#,QO|hR&Q$¯pF1Jkec;2\HKa%H|p;B@ҁ$$1)!g 46%]}0% Rb.nF ;O,Nډ41H2j-Bl: ,lKP:5Rw%?_}H-{>}HEcrɱx(4?e`*)"wIaoah2UJMtLEjA:Ėq˄ْ B!`kKz]N3 ֵrɔe j`G!3%|hJCހ4"嬖Aq~tvp354 VA|X`u$^-TIN󍷄:c̤ +w"r=#IMqF@dU` M/IӶufۮ6z| :pyX"BL^h98*,8.*,J}96w+kÀ+q|2GV Q[jpX9̞ϖ{6{ZCX٦䌟&L~'L/a1BRc d:"AJ5ٹxQ(Ek7q?x9h"a3cd axԴIO <:lm0Ax%&LŴjGC$%xt"!ϋxB{ LѺlbG GM'X kӳ*Ut_/tg G" -xL_ݷs2/t & #P[4@'h 6=ntdT ?3L c30$oY140X{Ha}rKCTA͢o)c+R%ʖjִض c\Ѱ?,Sc?>6)әg9ҿׂhNO/'˰9XhL&r~NBXR_q8挄 {( psHc>m\eM܂3c W m(У#ӽ=$Ҋv?GJSlו& ]=%bX5f'6wvP)H-But+nhy:}:m%%@$ DqD!!.;uZ#2kalI :]+Ww:Ɯ]eH^k[AD0[c懹q!$=|rkgʁnUrN̹9z+_(5=[\I񼙉إf o1 Fʫë~\Z[79[(9#}lk6v4ȨgȒE6xwKhXjvr\&$ljs#<-,2~۬@mUL9ý6>9}vuyKo?KAP#gXG5ozMǧgmigE?o;8(?CR(1}K[]8,Ku].ӓ4~+grmbb*lq%[^٢x$Gj|^e6!f Zl UrT|+zn_^ɯZ-o2ez_ȉ7%4Oyzxθg۸#_0 SVrX_me~;s`<}Pv9?*RhfԦ[Lod'g&&1 %\f {M8>%`28f5$U4[eSUij'U;8Ҹ[zmg@@_+T׿R'vͩ- SY XXN}i6Ak$e/ 8@nc4[v{uL\|@bk.NX^Ǯn(gvcOOmجEk\VsV!nD;_mVe+9[ǻ/7r:쩏#`د}Ǵ4zvf.Ż84 %=63z/Bbm`n5P (?\]v{* Cm:G59&S,CdŨ9qA9[l+v۸b~R!щX3{v668{ou\!1aV$.+[8oK퍍<\4$.DTu^r9 *_p& XDϵ^T2˘PXQ?/aJmS5Un'jȭ6L%b0aOvxDmHJUG:^-'<1Z a D":f-A._Fh-0o&8g6?RWK_'gSƒ۝+sSӌy.Y*-~q-Y2dK:xY^έ`^GnP ydSW-OLϟX'h  3zkŗ|:F5Gh,PAx\0>4A8|Q;w~p?3Z">dXCu}N7ءSo?aa$kGq:XNo`|/!p L&5=1W\hH *FfhT%8"s"?IQ8w~XId:铧HD<*JZ|ҵR\X1OӖ?Vz~\M%Y;hHHtGSh=X6oqтCt3=H@/D(D#C$`]ea_=%W–X=y_`'#?A&Uo s]* 6^a. h&Y_,0W;Jk kyw} D*?aj}09M/.tpDϥm?i" MCYúAˠBmF/&^#y@/!g"[vCQ.6H v-W?Znwnמ2z;&0/9_ f 89Sy9bg zB̍J ց_|5⼌Y,L%qK221W?LL{veL=~ I#a{H/7)`fX+Sɽ ]7;ݠq3il(e`Kpā^BNSmO)KpVWSK_ϧ79ƥ6d+ 4